Monthly Archives: November 2017

capturing moments underwater

even created underwater – so the creation of underwater digital camera.
An underwater digital camera is not just used to capture underwater memories; some
professional marine photographers also use underwater digital cameras in their business.
Even marine biologists and scientists use underwater digital cameras to capture marine life
and thus be able to study the life and properties of the marine life. But I think it is
safe to assume that you, my reader, are neither a marine scientist nor a professional
photographer. Like me, you are just some photo junkie who wants to capture underwater
moments and just cant figure out how without ruining your cameras.
Please listen to me when I say that even waterproof cameras cannot withstand underwater
photography. To be waterproof is to resist the water in certain levels, submerging in under
the water to get the perfect shot is like throwing it out of the window expecting a pick-up
truck to pass by and run over it.
Now if you’re really serious about using an underwater digital camera to capture those
wacky and funny moments underwater, I suggest that you buy specialty cameras.
There are rarely underwater digital cameras, as cameras are electronic and cannot withstand
water and water pressure. The closest electronics has ever got to producing underwater
digital cameras are producing underwater casings for digital cameras. These casing will
turn your conventional digital camera into an underwater digital camera.
If you are shooting with your underwater digital camera, you need to take note of a few
things to help you come up with the best images underwater.
Remember that as you farther under water, light diffuses. This means that your underwater
digital camera will produce images darker than those images you took while on land – this
is because of the light diffusion the red spectrum seems darker. To avoid this, use white
balance come up with natural colors. Also, pictures taken underwater will come up larger
than pictures taken on land with the same zoom effect. Be sure to check your underwater
digital camera’s viewfinder to check the right picture angle and size that you want.
An underwater digital camera with its built-in flash will produce marine show phenomenon.
It is a phenomenon wherein your pictures come out as blurry and with white particles
floating above it, to avoid this phenomenon it is advisable to use external flash for your
underwater digital camera.
Before using your underwater digital camera, submerge the camera in the water first for
several seconds then check if there are leaks through the case. Make sure that no grain of
sand or piece of hair is stuck in between the seal to make sure that water will not
permeate the case and thus wet your camera in the process. It is also advisable to put
silica gel or two inside the case of your underwater digital camera as long as they don’t
disturb the camera’s operation. (Silica gel will keep the moisture from forming inside your
camera case.)
Most underwater digital cameras come with optional lenses. Don’t be afraid to add these
lenses to your underwater digital camera kit. Macro lenses will help you capture small
things without getting too close and startling your subject.
Also, remember to always wash of salt when you’ve used it under salt water. If the salts
are not washed off, in time they will crystallize; act as sands and cause leaks for your
camera case. In cases when sands seem to get into the case, they are better washed off with
streams of water.

Diesel Engines Forgotten Treasures

There are very few engine configurations that promise
increased fuel economy and power. There are few
engines that offer this in addition to reliability.
Today, those across the ocean are enjoying the
fruits of diesel technology revolution.

Diesels have experienced a great history here in the
United States. In 1980, General Motors modified
their 350ci gas V8 to run on diesel fuel. The result
however, wasn’t that god. These engines offered
better fuel economy but little else. They were
very slow, and not very reliable.

Mercedes Benz on the other hand, had better luck
in the 1980s with an array of vehicles available
with diesel engines. These great vehicles offered
amazing durability although they were rough, noisy,
and smoked quite a bit. Volkswagon offered diesel
as well, although they had a habit for spewing
blue smoke from the tail pipe.

Throughout the 90s, Benz and Volkwagon offered
diesel vehicles in the United States, with each
generation becoming cleaner, smoother, and more
powerful than the last. Overall, they were a
tough sell as they still lacked the horsepower
that many were seeking.

Today, Mercedes, BMW, Jaguar, Volkswagon, Ford,
and many other manufacturers are offering diesels
to many markets throughout the world. To put it
simple, forget everything you know or think you
know about diesel engines in the United States.

These newer engines benefit from hundreds of
technical innovations. There are several diesels
in Europe that offer better acceleration than
their gasoline counter parts. BMW’s 120d has
163bhp, goes 0 – 60 in under 8 seconds, and
achieves 49.6 miles per gallon.

Benz offers the C320 CDI SE that has 224bhp, and
over 360 lb foot of torque. This car gets just
under 48 mpg on the highway, with an acceleration
of 0 – 60 in under 7 seconds. Throughout North
America, you won’t find a gasoline engine that
offers this unique blend of fuel economy and
excellent performance.

The reason why diesels haven’t caught on in
North America comes down to one word – sulfur. We
have too much sulfur in the diesel here in the
United States. This cheap grade of diesel fuel
will run havoc on the more sophisticated diesels
offered overseas and cause an increase in
emissions.

There is hope however, as refiners will soon be
producing what is known as ultra low sulfur
diesel fuel. This will help to reduce the sulfur
content from 500ppm to 15ppm.

Diesel Fuel Quality

The designs of diesel engines striving to increase
performance have made a lot of advancements in engine
fuel delivery to the combustion chamber. The diesel
engines of today are much quieter, smoother, and
also more powerful. The quality of diesel fuel on
the other hand has not advanced at the same rate as
the improvements of engines.

As soon as it is produced, diesel fuel begins to
deteriorate. Less than 30 days of refining, all
diesel fuel, regardless of the brand, goes through a
natural process called oxidation. This process forms
varnishes and gums in the fuel by causing the
molecules of the fuel to lengthen and start bonding
together.

Now, these components will drop to the bottom of the
fuel tank and form diesel sludge. The fuel will
begin to turn very dark in color, smell bad, and
cause the engine to smoke. The engine starts to
smoke as some of these clusters are small enough to
pass through the engine filtration and on to the
combustion chamber.

As the clusters begin to increase in size, only a
small amount of the molecules will get burned, as
the rest will go out the exhaust as unburned fuel
and smoke.

Its estimated that eight out of every ten diesel
engine failures are directly related to poor quality
and contaminated fuel. The build up of contamination
in the fuel systems and storage tanks can clog
filters, thereby causing the engine to shut down,
and damage to the engine to occur.

The number one reason for bad fuel is due to the
increasing popularity of diesel power and the
accompanying increased demand for more diesel fuel.
Long ago, diesel fuel remained in the refinery
storage tanks long enough to naturally seperate and
begin to settle, allowing the clean fuel to be
drawn apart. Now, with the demand getting higher
than ever, the fuel is never stationary long enough
to settle, and the suspended water and solids are
passed on to the person buying the fuel – you.

The changes in refinery techniques is also a
problem. In order to get more products, diesel
fuel is being refined for more marginal portions of
the crude barrel. This results in a lower grade
product that is thicker and also contains a lot
more contamination.

As time continues to pass and technology gets better
and better, one can only hope that the quality of
diesel fuel improves. As it stands now, the quality
isn’t good at all. If you run diesel fuel, all
you can basically hope for is that the fuel you
are getting isn’t contaminated.

Gas Tractor Versus Diesel Tractor

There are many different reasons as to why a diesel
compact tractor is superior to a gasoline garden
tractor.

First of all, the diesel engine doesn’t have the
parts that normally wear out or give problems. There
are no spark plugs, rotors, points, or distributor
caps like the garden tractor. There is no carburetor
either, that will gum up and be hard to start after
being stored for a long period of time. Diesel engines
can be stored for long periods of time and still start
right up.

Secondly, diesel engines in most tractors are water
cooled. This will allow the engine to run at a more
consistent and cooler temperature, which will extend
the life of the engine. The typical properly
maintained diesel engine can run thousands of hours
without breaking a sweat – and without having to be
rebuilt.

Diesel engines will also make more power. Even though
gasoline tractors may be a little quicker to start
with, they can’t begin to match the power and raw
torque that diesel engines offer.

Another reason why diesel tractors are better than
gas is the available attachments. Most gasoline
tractors are equipped with a belly mower and don’t
normally have a three point hitch. This will severely
limit the type of implements that you can use and
also limit the tractors expandability.

Most blades and scoop implements won’t work with a
gasoline tractor. The drive train will also limit
the type of implement you can use with a garden
tractor. The typical gasoline garden tractor is
belt driven, while a belt drive won’t pull as much
load as a diesel powered tractor. You would probably
not be able to use a box blade or tiller either
with the average gasoline powered tractor.

General Information On Diesel Engines

Diesel engines offer the lowest specific fuel usage
of any other large internal combustion engine. The
fact remains, two-stroke diesels with high pressure
forced induction, particularly turbo charging, make
up a large percentage of the largest diesel engines.

Throughout North America, diesel engines are generally
used in larger trucks, where the low stress, high
efficiency cycle will lead to a much longer engine
life and lower costs to operate. These advantages
also help to make the diesel engine ideal for use in
the heavy haul industry.

Cars however, continue to use gasoline, primarily
due to the consumer desire for a wider range of
RPM. In Europe, the use of diesel engines with cars
is far more common.

Even though diesel engines are more efficient when
throttled down, they aren’t suitable for most types
of aircraft. The higher compression ratios of the
diesel cycle demand a much stronger block, head,
and almost all moving parts in general. These
stronger parts add a lot of weight, or a lot of
expense, especially if lighter alloys are being used.

The Otto cycle engines are much cheaper to build for
these reasons, although they have long been overtaken
by the turbine engines. For the same displacement
of the engine, Otto cycles will produce more actual
power than a Diesel cycle can, because the fuel
will burn at a much faster rate, allowing more power
strokes per minute than a standard diesel can offer.

What this means, is that less fuel has to be carried.
Additionally, commercial aircraft is normally run
at preset limits, so that Otto cycle engines used
in aircraft don’t suffer anywhere near the efficiency
penalties that land vehicles do. Heavy equipment,
such as those used in mining and construction,
almost always uses diesel engines.

Diesel engines are also used with submarines. In
these types of submarines, the diesel engine is run
when the submarine is on the surface, which charges
the batteries that power the submarine once it is
submerged.

All across the world, diesel engines serve many
different purposes. They are used with almost all
types of heavy machinery, and other vehicles. Gas
isn’t the way to go with heavy machinery, as the
engines simply can’t withstand the beating.

Diesel has been popular for many years with machinery
and submarines, simply because the engines can
last for years and years. Although they won’t offer
as much speed as gasoline, the torque and power is
still there.

Caterpillar Equipment

Caterpillar Incorporated, also known as CAT is a
United States based corporation that is based in
Peoria, Illinois. The company commonly known as CAT
is known around the world as the largest manufacturer
of construction and mining equipment, diesel and
natural gas engines, and industrial gas turbines.

Well known and famous for their products that feature
the Caterpillar track and distinctive yellow paint,
CAT produces a wide range of heavy equipment for
all types of jobs, including the very popular
Caterpillar D9 bulldozer.

History
The story of CAT dates back to the late 19th century,
when Daniel Best and Benjamin Holt were experimenting
with different ways to fulfill the promise that
steam tractors held for farm work. Prior to 1925,
the Holt family had pioneered track tractors and
gasoline powered engines. After the companies of
Best and Holt were merged, the company went through
several changes then at the end of World War 2,
they began to grow at a very fast pace, launching
the first venture outside of the country in 1950,
which marked the beginning of CAT development into
a big corporation.

CAT equipment ranges from track type tractors to
hydraulic excavators, backhoes, motor graders, off
road trucks, wheel loaders, tractors, diesel and
gas engines, and gas turbines. CAT equipment is
used in construction, excavation, building roads,
mining, energy, forestry, transportation, and
material handling companies.

Sales
Over half of CAT’s sales are to customers in overseas
areas. CAT products are sold in almost 200 different
countries. The company has a worldwide network
of over 200 dealers – 63 in the United States and
over 150 in other countries. CAT equipment and
components are manufactured in 42 plants in the
United States and 58 plants in Australia, Belgium,
Brazil, Canada, England, France, Germany, India,
Japan, Mexico, and several other countries.

Labor
CAT almost went down in the early 1980s due to
the massive union strikes and a down turn in product
demand. At the time, several news reports indicated
that products were piling up so high in facilities
that temporary workers hired to work the lines
could barely get to their stations to perform their
jobs.

In the 1990s, CAT suffered yet another long strike
in which the company hired what it deemed to be
permanent replacements for union workers that
were on strike. During both strikes, jack rocks
were placed in the home entrances of many of
CATs top executives and employees, puncturing
the tires of their vehicles and making things
worse for the company.

Not long after the strike of the 1990s ended
and the economy started to get back up again, CAT
adopted the “6 Sigma” quality management program,
to help reduce costs and inventory and identify
and correct the defects in processes and products.

Gasoline Credit Cards

With gasoline getting more and more expensive, you’ve
probably found yourself wondering what you can do.
Even with the rising costs of gas and fuel, you
still need it to go places. No matter how you look
at it, you are at the mercy of these prices.

If you own two credit cards, changes are that you
will use one of them to pay for your gas. Gas credit
cards are now starting to shine. There are many
individuals who are planning to apply for a gas
card. Most cards are either issued by a leading
credit card company or by a major retailing gas
station.

Along with that, there are some of the gas credit
cards that give you a great deal like having
discounts on gases such as unleaded, premium, and
others. Gas credit cards also give you an
assurance to have more approved gas bonus.

If the credit card is approved, the owner of the
card will not only save money on gas, but he’ll
also get an extra allowance for car equipment and
accessories. Gas cards can also help you save
a bundle on repairs as well.

Keep in mind that there are some things to consider
when you apply for a gas card. When you plan to
apply for a card, the conditions should always be
known. The benefits of the gas credit cards
available should also be studied and researched
in order to compare rates, features, and
benefits.

As the popularity of gas credit cards continue to
increase, so will the offers. Gas cards also
offer a positive effect for gasoline retailers as
well. The customer will also earn additional
incentives as well. If you plan to stick with
one brand of gas, this card can generate some of
the best rewards.

When looking for the best type of gasoline credit
card, the most important thing to do is review
the terms and conditions. The present status
of the card should also be reviewed in order to
avoid a bad credit record.

There are also several gas credit cards that will
give you extra rewards and point systems. What
this means, is that the card holder can earn
cash back on certain purchases. The more points
you get, the bigger product you can receive.

The ideal purpose of applying for gas credit cards
is to help eliminate the gas expenses. The
credit card should help you to have a deal with
gas expenses. Low interest premium cards can be
the best if you can maintain the proper balance.

The best thing about gasoline credit cards is the
fact that you don’t have to pay for them now and
you can just pay later. Just don’t forget to pay
the bill, as you could end up getting a bad credit
rating.

Gas Diesel Hybrid War

These days, gasoline prices may be crimping your
your household budget. You may like to reduce
the U.S. dollars that flow to the Middle East for
oil, or perhaps you are motivated by your concern
for the environment, or even the nagging reality
that oil is a depleting resource that shouldn’t
be wasted.

Fuel economy
To put it into prospective, the fuel economy are
the numbers posted on the window sticker of a new
vehicle. Studies have shown that the average
driver only receives 75 percent or so of the
mileage figures that are on the sticker.

You can use these numbers to determine the best
type of vehicle for your purchase. The numbers
will let you know how many MPG your vehicle will
get, so you can compare vehicles and then go
from there.

Hybrid pricing
The gas electric hybrid vehicles are normally
priced higher than non hybrid counterparts,
anywhere from a couple of thousand dollars to
several thousand dollars.

Hybrids can get a lot of miles per gallon,
some averaging around 45 – 55. This is great
for those who want to save money on gas, as
hybrids can go many miles on a full tank of
fuel and they come with extended warranties
as well.

Diesel efficiency
Diesel powered vehicles are yet another fuel
efficient option. Diesels are known for getting
extra mileage from every gallon of fuel. They
offer much better torque than many gasoline
engines. The price differential they have
over gasoline engines are usually much smaller
than that of the hybrid.

With plenty of options available, you’re sure
to find what you need to help conserve fuel.
Before you make a purchase, always remember
to shop around and find what’s best for you.

Diesel Engines And Well Known Gas

In passenger cars, the diesel engine has never really
caught on. During the middle to late 70s, diesel
engines in passenger cars did notice a surge in
sales due to the OPEC oil embargo, although that is
the only real significant penetration that diesel
engines have made in the market.

Although diesel engines are more efficient, there
are eight historical problems that may have held
them back.
1. Due to the higher compression ratios,
diesel engines tend be heavier than the equivalent
gasoline engine.
2. Diesel vehicles and diesel engines tend to
be more expensive than gas.
3. Because of their weight and compression
ratio, diesel engines tend to have lower RPM ranges
than gas engines. This gives diesel engines more
torque rather than higher horsepower, and this tends
to make diesel vehicles slower in terms of acceleration.
4. Diesel engines have to be fuel injected,
and in the past fuel injection was very expensive
and less reliable.
5. Diesel engines tend to produce more
smoke and smell very funny when compared to gasoline
engines.
6. They are harder to start in cold weather
and if they contain glow plugs, the diesel engines
may require you to wait before you start the
engine so that the glow plugs can heat up.
7. Diesel engines are much noisier than
gas engines and tend to vibrate quite a bit.
8. Diesel fuel is less available than gas.

Although one or two of these disadvantages would be
acceptable, a group of them is a big turn away for
many people.

Even though the list above are reasons in the past
as to why diesel never really took off, you can
expect these reasons to get corrected and improved
in the future, meaning that you will see more and
more diesel vehicles on the road.

Advantages Of Diesel Engines

If you’ve owned a diesel powered vehicle in the
past or if you own one now, you no doubt appreciate
the qualities this engine provides you with. More
torque, better fuel economy, and easier maintenance
are but a few of the attributes of owning diesel
powered vehicles.

However, there are some motorists that still
complain about the engine’s weak power, especially
when accelerating from a full stop. What you
may not be aware of is the fact that a diesel
engine can be tweaked to give more power without
harming the fuel economy.

Diesel engines use air compression to create
combustion versus the fuel/air mixture that is
required by gas engines. This attribute means
that diesel engines don’t require spark plugs
and therefore don’t need to be tuned up.

Diesel fuel has a much high fuel density than
gas, which results in fuel economy increases
of 20 – 30% over gasoline powered vehicles.

Diesel engines are also cheaper to maintain as
they have less parts than that of a gasoline
powered engine. The life span of a diesel
engine is also much longer.

If you’re looking for torque, for pulling a
boat or other equipment, then the diesel
engine has the supreme advantage. Diesel
engines are surely slower, especially when
starting from a dead stop, although when you
climb hills or go over bridges, the diesel
engine is surely up to the task.

With trucks, diesel is normally the leader
over gas engines in terms of performance and
miles per gallon. Diesel trucks will get
more miles than gas trucks, and the price for
diesel is a bit cheaper than gas these days.
And with gas prices on the rise, diesel will
continue to dominate for a long time to come.